Explain why illusions provide clues to perceptual mechanisms.6. Describe Gestalt psychology.7. Describe the phenomenon of perceptual constancy.8. Describe the psychological dimensions of sound and the physiology of hearing.9. Describe the difference between top-down and bottom up processing. 10. Discuss the senses of smell, taste and touch.Objectives 8 After viewing the television program and completing the assigned readings, you should be able to:1. Define learning.2. Describe the process of classical conditioning and show how it demonstrates learning by association.3. Cite examples of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalizations, and discrimination.4. Describe the process of operant conditioning.5. Know the distinction between positive and negative punishment and between positive and negative reinforcement.6. Describe how observational learning occurs.7. Discuss the varieties of reinforcement schedules, including fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval and variable interval.8. Describe cognitive influence on learning.9. Describe biological constraints on learning and some possible effects that learning can have on the functioning of the body.